Environmental impacts by golf courses and strategies to minimize them: State of the art

Peña, C. (2014)

International Journal of Arts & Sciences


Golf has grown worldwide in terms of number of golfers and infrastructure; however, environmental impacts have been identified during the construction and operational processes of the fields. The assessment of these impacts has generated a global concern as results show concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals, nutrients in water and soil which often exceed current health and environmental regulations. Additionally, the high consumption of water generates changes in surrounding ecosystems and it may also cause the inclusion of foreign species. Consequently, those issues have been a concern of government agencies and organizations in different countries which have led most countries to initiate the development of methodologies and standard methods to carry out the environmental sustainability of the sport. This article will outline the state of the art of environmental impacts generated by golf courses and some practices to reduce, control and manage them, which include guides, manuals and standards.

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